Power to the critics — A framework for the development of artificial art critics
Machado, P., Romero, J., Manaris, B., Santos, A., Cardoso, A.: Power to the critics — A framework for the development of artificial art critics. In: Proceedings of the IJCAI Workshop on Creative Systems (2003).
In this paper we propose a framework for the development of artificial art critics, consisting of an architecture and a validation methodology. The architecture includes two modules: a feature extractor, which performs a pre-processing of the artwork, extracting several measurements and characteristics; and an evaluator, which, based on the output of the feature extractor, classifies the artwork according to a certain criteria. The validation methodology comprises several stages, ranging from author and style discrimination to the integration of the artificial art critic in a dynamic multi-agent environment, which includes human agents. Finally, we present experimental results obtained by the implementation of the proposed framework.
[Arnheim, 1954] Rudolf Arnheim. Art and Visual Per- ception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye. University of California Press, 1954.
[Arnheim, 1971] Rudolf Arnheim. Entropy and Art. Uni- versity of California Press, 1971.
[Baluja et al, 1994] S. Baluja, D. Pomerleau, and T. Jochem. Towards Automated Artificial Evolution for Computer-Generated Images. In Connection Science 6, No. 2, pp. 325–354. 1994.
[Biles et al, 1996] J. A. Biles, P. G. Anderson and L. W. Loggi. Neural Network Fitness Functions for an IGA. In Proceedings of the International ICSC Symposium on Intelligent Industrial Automation (ISA'96) and Soft Com- puting (SOCO'96), 26–28 March 1996 (Reading, U.K.: ICSC Academic Press, 1996) pp. B39–B44. 1996.
[Boden, 1990] M. A. Boden. The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms. London, Cardinal. 1990.
[Burton, 1996] A. R. Burton. A Hybrid Neuro-Genetic Pattern Evolution System Applied to Musical Composi- tion. PhD thesis, University of Surrey. 1996.
[Burton and Vladimirova, 1997] A. R. Burton and T. Vladimirova. Genetic Algorithms Utilizing Neural Net- work Fitness Evaluation for Musical Composition. In G.D. Smith, N.C. Steele and R.F. Albrecht (Eds.), Inter- national Conference on Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, Norwich, UK, pp. 220–224, Springer, 1997.
[Cope, 1996] David Cope. Experiments in Musical Intel- ligence. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1996.
[Greenfield, 2002] Gary R. Greenfield. On the Co- Evolution of Evolving Expressions. International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 1 (2002) pp. 17–31, Imperial College Press, 2002.
[Johanson and Poli, 1998] Brad Johanson and Riccardo Poli. GP-Music: An Interactive Genetic Programming System for Music Generation with Automated Fitness Raters. Genetic Programming 1998: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, 1998 [Li,2003] Wentian Li. Zipf’s Law, http://linkage.rockefeller.edu/wli/zipf/. Acessed May, 2003.
[Machado and Cardoso, 2000] P. Machado and A. Car- doso. All the truth about NEvAr. Applied Intelligence, Special issue on Creative Systems, Bentley, P. Corne, D. (eds), Vol. 16, Nr. 2, pp. 101–119, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
[Manaris et al., 2002] B. Manaris, T. Purewal and C. McCormick. Progress Towards Recognizing and Classi- fying Beautiful Music with Computers-MIDI-Encoded Music and the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law. In Proceedings of EEE SoutheastCon 2002, Columbia, SC, pp. 52–57, 2002.
[Manaris et al., 2003] B. Manaris, D. Vaughan, C. Wag- ner, J. Romero, and R. Davis. Evolutionary Music and the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law: Developing Fitness Functions for Pleasant Music. In Lecture Notes in Computer Sci- ence, Applications of Evolutionary Computing – Evoworkshops 2003, LNCS 2611, pp. 522–534, Springer- Verlag, 2003.
[Papadopoulos and Wiggins, 1998] G. Papadopoulos and and G. A. Wiggins. A Genetic Algorithm for the Genera- tion of Jazz Melodies. In Proceedings of STeP'98: 8th Finnish Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Jyväskylä, Finland, September 7-9, 1998.
[Papadopoulos and Wiggins, 1999] G. Papadopoulos and and G. A. Wiggins. AI Methods for Algorithmic Compo- sition: A Survey, A Critical View, and Future Prospects. Proceedings of the AISB'99 Symposium on Musical Crea- tivity, 1999.
[Pazos et al, 2003] A. Pazos, A. Santos, B. Arcay, J. Do- rado, J: Romero, and J. Rodríguez. An Application Framework for Building Evolutionary Computer Systems in Music. Leonardo, 36(1), 2003
[Salingaros and West, 1999] N. A. Salingaros and B. J.West. A Universal Rule for the Distribution of Sizes. Environment and Planning, B(26), pp. 909–923, 1999.
[Shooman and Laemmel, 1977] M. Shooman and A. Laemmel. Statistical Theory of Computer Programs. In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Conference, pp. 511– 517, Oct. 1977.
[Saunders and Gero, 2001] R. Saunders and J. Gero, Arti- ficial Creativity. A Synthetic Approach to the Study of Creative Behaviour. In J. S. Gero (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computational and Cognitive Models of Creative Design, Key Centre of Design Com- puting and Cognition. 2001.
[Spector and Alpern, 1994] L. Spector and A. Alpern, Criticism, Culture and the Automatic Generation of Art- works. In Proceedings Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-94), August 1-4, pp. 3–8. AAAI Press. 1994.
[Teller and Velosos, 1995] A. Teller and M. Veloso. Al- gorithm evolution for face recognition: What makes a picture difficult. In Proceedings of the International Con- ference on Evolutionary Computation, IEEE Press, 1995.
[Todd and Werner, 1998] P. M. Todd and G. M. Werner. Frankensteinian Methods for Evolutionary Music Com- position. In N. Griffith and P.M. Todd, Eds., Musical Networks: Parallel Distributed Perception and Perform- ance, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1998.
[Voss and Clarke, 1975] Voss, R.F., and Clarke, J.: 1/f Noise in Music and Speech. Nature 258, pp. 317–318, 1975.
[Wiggins and Papadopoulos, 1999] G. A. Wiggins, G. Papadopoulos, S. Phon-Amnuaisuk and A. Tuson. Evolu- tionary Methods for Musical Composition. In Interna- tional Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, 1(1), 1999.
[Zipf, 1949] G. K. Zipf. Human Behavior and the Princi- ple of Least Effort. New York: Hafner Publishing Com- pany, 1949.