Abstracted painterly renderings using eye-tracking data
DeCarlo, D., Santella, A.: Abstracted painterly renderings using eye-tracking data. In: Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 769–776 (2002).
When used by artists, manual interfaces for painterly rendering can yield very satisfying abstract transformations of images. Automatic techniques produce interesting paintings as well, but can only recast pictures in a different style without performing any abstraction. At best, information is removed uniformly across the image, without emphasizing the important content. We describe a new approach for the creation of painterly renderings that draws on a model of human perception and is driven by eye-tracking data. This approach can perform meaningful abstraction using this data, with the minimum interaction possible: the user need only look at the image for several seconds. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this interactive technique and compare it with a fully automatic approach.
Cassidy J. Curtis , Sean E. Anderson , Joshua E. Seims , Kurt W. Fleischer , David H. Salesin, Computer-generated watercolor, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.421-430, August 1997 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/258734.258896
DUCHOWSKI, A., AND VERTEGAAL, R. 2000. Eye-based interaction in graphical systems: Theory and practice. In SIGGRAPH 2000 Course Notes #5. ACM SIGGRAPH.
A. T. Duchowski, Acuity-matching resolution degradation through wavelet coefficient scaling, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, v.9 n.8, p.1437-1440, August 2000 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.855439
Paul Haeberli, Paint by numbers: abstract image representations, Proceedings of the 17th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.207-214, September 1990, Dallas, TX, USA http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/97879.97902
HENDERSON, J. M., AND HOLLINGWORTH, A. 1998. Eye movements during scene viewing: An overview. In Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception, G. Underwood, Ed. Elsevier Science Ltd., 269-293.
Aaron Hertzmann, Painterly rendering with curved brush strokes of multiple sizes, Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.453-460, July 1998 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/280814.280951
JACOB, R. J. 1993. Eye-movement-based human-computer interaction techniques: Toward non-command interfaces. In Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, Volume 4, H. Hartson and D. Hix, Eds. Ablex Publishing, 151-190.
JUST, M. A., AND CARPENTER, P. A. 1976. Eye fixations and cognitive processes. Cognitive Psychology 8, 441-480.
KAHNEMAN, D. 1973. Attention and Effort. Prentice-Hall.
KELLY, D. 1984. Retinal inhomogenity: I. spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 74, 1, 107-113.
Jan J. Koenderink , Andrea J. Van Doorn, The Structure of Locally Orderless Images, International Journal of Computer Vision, v.31 n.2-3, p.159-168, April 1999 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008065931878
KOENDERINK, J. J., M. A. BOUMAN, A. B. D. M., AND SLAPPENDEL, S. 1978. Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. II. the far peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0-50). Journal of the Optical Society of America 68, 6, 850-854.
Peter Litwinowicz, Processing images and video for an impressionist effect, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.407-414, August 1997 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/258734.258893
MACKWORTH, N., AND MORANDI, A. 1967. The gaze selects informative details within pictures. Perception and Psychophysics 2, 547-552.
Sumanta N. Pattanaik , James A. Ferwerda , Mark D. Fairchild , Donald P. Greenberg, A multiscale model of adaptation and spatial vision for realistic image display, Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.287-298, July 1998 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/280814.280922
P. Perona , J. Malik, Scale-Space and Edge Detection Using Anisotropic Diffusion, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, v.12 n.7, p.629-639, July 1990 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/34.56205
REDDY, M. 1997. Perceptually Modulated Level of Detail for Virtual Environments. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Martin Reddy, Perceptually Optimized 3D Graphics, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, v.21 n.5, p.68-75, September 2001 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/38.946633
REGAN, D. 2000. Human Perception of Objects: Early Visual Processing of Spatial Form Defined by Luminance, Color, Texture, Motion and Binocular Disparity. Sinauer.
Michael P. Salisbury , Sean E. Anderson , Ronen Barzel , David H. Salesin, Interactive pen-and-ink illustration, Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.101-108, July 1994 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/192161.192185
Michio Shiraishi , Yasushi Yamaguchi, An algorithm for automatic painterly rendering based on local source image approximation, Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, p.53-58, June 05-07, 2000, Annecy, France http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/340916.340923
Linda E. Sibert , Robert J. K. Jacob, Evaluation of eye gaze interaction, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, p.281-288, April 01-06, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/332040.332445
Roel Vertegaal, The GAZE groupware system: mediating joint attention in multiparty communication and collaboration, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, p.294-301, May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/302979.303065
YARBUS, A. L. 1967. Eye Movements and Vision. Plenum Press.
ZEKI, S. 1999. Inner Vision: An Exploration of Art and the Brain. Oxford University Press.