Generating plants with gene expression programming
Johannes Venter and Alexandre Hardy: Generating plants with gene expression programming. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Virtual Reality, Visualisation and Interaction in Africa, Afrigraph 2007, pp. 159-167, ACM, October 29-31 2007.
The simulated evolution of botanical trees and other plants is explored in this paper. We present a model to simplify the creation of plants by following the genotype/phenotype approach of Gene Expression Programming to generate L-Systems. Our model describes a specific organism (a plant) with a genotype that can be expressed as an L-System. This L-System, and subsequently it's interpreted graphical image, forms the phenotype, and is used to assess the fitness of the organism. The human eye is used as a fitness function, and a user assigns fitness ratings to the organisms in a population based on the aesthetic value of the images. The user is able to create a plant without knowledge of the underlying algorithms or specific botanical knowledge.
Abelson, H., and diSessa, A. A. 1982. Turtle geometry. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge.
Clare Bates Congdon , Raymond H. Mazza, GenTree: an interactive genetic algorithms system for designing 3D polygonal tree models, Proceedings of the 2003 international conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation: PartII, July 12-16, 2003, Chicago, IL, USA http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1756690&CFID=588525319&CFTOKEN=29804931
Ferraro, P., Godin, C., and Prusinkiewicz, P. 2005. Toward a quantification of self-similarity in plants. Fractals 13(2), 91--109.
Ferreira, C. 2001. Gene Expression Programming: A New Adaptive Algorithm for Solving Problems. Complex Systems 13, 87--129.
Martin Fuhrer , Henrik Wann Jensen , Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, Modeling Hairy Plants, Proceedings of the Computer Graphics and Applications, 12th Pacific Conference, p.217-226, October 06-08, 2004 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1026045&CFID=588525319&CFTOKEN=29804931
Christian Jacob, Genetic L-System Programming, Proceedings of the International Conference on Evolutionary Computation. The Third Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature: Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, p.334-343, October 09-14, 1994 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=670362&CFID=588525319&CFTOKEN=29804931
Kwasnicka, H., and Wozniak, P. 2006. EMOT - Evolutionary approach to 3D computer animation. In Proceedings of the International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information Technology, 111--121.
McCormack, J. 1993. Interactive Evolution of L-System Grammars for Computer Graphics Modelling. In Complex Systems: from biology to computation, D. G. Green and T. Bossomaier, Eds. ISO Press, Amsterdam, 118--130.
Gabriela Ochoa, On Genetic Algorithms and Lindenmayer Systems, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, p.335-344, September 27-30, 1998 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=668927&CFID=588525319&CFTOKEN=29804931
Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz , Aristid Lindenmayer, The algorithmic beauty of plants, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York, NY, 1996
Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz , Mark S. Hammel , Eric Mjolsness, Animation of plant development, Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.351-360, August 02-06, 1993, Anaheim, CA http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/166117.166161
Prusinkiewicz, P., Hammel, M., Mech, R., and Hanan, J. 1995. The artificial life of plants. SIGGRAPH '95 Course Notes 7, 1--38.
Prusinkiewicz, P. 2004. Self-similarity in plants: Integrating mathematical and biological perspectives. In Thinking in Patterns. Fractals and Related Phenomena in Nature, World Scientific, Singapore, M. Novak, Ed., 103--118.
Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F., and Eichhorn, S. E. 2005. Biology of Plants, 7th ed. W. H. Freeman and Company Publishers.
Karl Sims, Artificial evolution for computer graphics, Proceedings of the 18th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.319-328, July 1991 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/122718.122752
Steeb, W.-H. 2005. The Nonlinear Workbook, 3rd ed. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore.
Whitley, D. 1994. A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial. Statistics and Computing 4, 65--85.