Inference and Design in Kuba and Zillij Art with Shape Grammars
Ramgopal Rajagopalan, Eric Hortop, Dania El-Khechen, Cheryl Kolak Dudek, Lydia Sharman, Fred Szabo, Thomas Fevens and Sudhir Mudhur: Inference and Design in Kuba and Zillij Art with Shape Grammars. In: Bridges 2006. Pages 419–428
We present a simple method for structural inference in African Kuba cloth, and Moorish zillij mosaics. Our work is based on Stiny and Gips’ formulation of “Shape Grammars”. It provides art scholars and geometers with a simple yet powerful medium to perform analysis of existing art and draw inspiration for new designs. The analysis involves studying an artwork and capturing its structure as simple shape grammar rules. We then show how interesting families of artworks could be generated using simple variations in their corresponding grammars.
 Stiny G, Gips J, 1972, "Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture" in C V Freiman (ed) Information Processing 71 (Amsterdam: North-Holland) 1460-1465. Republished in Petrocelli O R (ed) 1972 The Best Computer Papers of 1971: Auerbach, Philadelphia 125-135.
 Stiny, George. “Pictoral and Formal Aspects of Shape and Shape Grammars.” Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1975, pp 28–39; 122–126.
 Gips J, 1975 “Shape Grammars and Their Uses: Artificial Perception, Shape Generation and Computer Aesthetics” (Birkhaüser, Basel:, Switzerland)
 Adams, Monni, “Beyond Symmetry In Middle African Design.” In: African Arts 23, 1: 35-43, 102-3, 1989. pg.35.
 Ibid, pg 37, 41.
 Branko Grünbaum and G.C. Shephard. Interlace patterns in Islamic and Moorish art. Leonardo, 25:331-339, 1992.
 El-Said, Issam and Ayse Parman. Geometric Concepts in Islamic Art. London: Scorpion Publishing, 1976.
 Craig S. Kaplan and David H. Salesin. Islamic star patterns in absolute geometry. ACM Trans. Graph., 23(2): 97–119, 2004.
 Abas, S., Salman, A. Geometric and group-theoretic methods for computer graphics studies of Islamic symmetric patterns. Comput. Graph. For. 11, 1, 43–53, 1992
 D. W. Crowe and D. K. Washburn, Symmetries of Culture: Theory and Practice of Plane Pattern Analysis, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1988.
 Ostromoukhov, V.. Mathematical tools for computer-generated ornamental patterns. In Electronic Publishing, Artistic Imaging and Digital Typography. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1375. Springer-Verlag, New York, 193–223, 1998
 Dewdney, A.. The Tinkertoy Computer and Other Machinations. W. H. Freeman, 222–230, 1993
 Kaplan, C. S.. Taprats. http://www.cgl.uwaterloo.ca/~csk/washington/taprats/. , 2000
 Ramgopal R and Miguel A, “Generative Design System”, Technical Report, 25th Sept 2004, URL (http://www.cs.concordia.ca/~r_rajago/GDS/researchReport-0.5.pdf)
 Cheryl Kolak Dudek, Lydia Sharman, Fred E. Szabo, Sushil Bhakar, Eric Hortop, Yun Li, Wumo Pan, From Ethno-mathematics to Generative Design: Metapatterns and Interactive Methods for the Creation of Decorative Art., 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV 04), London, 2004
 Yojana Joshi, Ramgopal Rajagopalan, Cheryl Kolak Dudek, Lydia Sharman, Sudhir P Mudur, “Designing a user interface for Generative Analysis of African Kuba Textiles”, Third Iteration Conference on Generative Systems in the Electronic Arts, Nov 30th – Dec 2nd, 2005, Melbourne, Australia.
 H. S. M. Coxeter, W. O. J. Moser, “Generators and relations for discrete groups”, 3rd Ed, Berlin; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1972.
 Grunbaum, Branko. “Periodic Ornamentation of the Fabric Plane: Lessons from Peruvian Fabrics,” Chap. 2 in Symmetry Comes of Age: The Role of Pattern In Culture. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2004.
 Noam Chomsky: Three models for the description of language, IRE Transactions on Information Theory, 2 (1956), pages 113-124