No Free Lunch in the Search for Creativity

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Dan Ventura: No Free Lunch in the Search for Creativity. In: Computational Creativity 2011 ICCC 2011, pp. 108-110.



We consider computational creativity as a search pro- cess and give a No Free Lunch result for computational creativity in this context. That is, we show that there is no a priori “best” creative strategy. We discuss some implications of this result and suggest some additional questions to be explored.

Extended Abstract


author = {Dan Ventura},
title = {No Free Lunch in the Search for Creativity},
editor = {Dan Ventura, Pablo Gervás, D. Fox Harrell, Mary Lou Maher, Alison Pease and Geraint Wiggins},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computational Creativity},
series = {ICCC2011},
year = {2011},
month = {April},
location = {México City, México},
pages = {108-110},
url = {, },
publisher = {International Association for Computational Creativity},
keywords = {computational, creativity},

Used References

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Ritchie, G. 2007. Some empirical criteria for attributing cre- ativity to a computer program. Minds and Machines 17:76–99.

Ventura, D. 2008. A reductio ad absurdum experiment in sufficiency for evaluating (computational) creative systems. In Proceedings of the Fifth Joint Workshop on Computa- tional Creativity, 11–19.

Wiggins, G. 2006. A preliminary framework for description analysis and comparison of creative systems. Knowledge- Based Systems 19:449–458.

Wolpert, D. H., and Macready, W. G. 1995. No free lunch theorems for search. In Technical Report SFI-TR-95-02-010. Santa Fe Institute.

Wolpert, D. H., and Macready, W. G. 1997. No free lunch theorems for optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolution- ary Computation 1(1):67– 82.

Wolpert, D. H. 1996. The lack of a priori distinctions be- tween learning algorithms. Neural Computation 8(3):1341– 1390.


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